Researched and edited by Alan A Sandercott

  • 3- Wellington Robinson Sandercock(1883-1957) - Official Ontario Vital Statistics documents discovered November 17, 2021 reveal that Wellington was born as "Illigitimate" to Barbara Sachs on August 3, 1883 in Hamilton, Wentworth Co, Ontario and the birth was registered in Hamilton on August 18, 1883. There is no record of a father on the document. Barbara would have conceived in late November or early December of 1882. John Sandercock, who eventually married Barbara, didn't immigrate to Canada until 1883, arriving in Quebec aboard the 'Circassian' on 7 May 1883. So he can't be the father of Wellington. John met and married Barbara on 14 March 1888 in Dashwood, Huron County, Ontario. At the time of the marriage Barbara was a spinster with a five year old son, she was also about two months pregnant with her daughter Flossie who was born in Exeter, Ontario on 27 October 1888. Wellington is believed to have been Flossie's father.

    Barbara Sachs was born on September 19, 1859 in Dashwood Ontario. She was a daughter of Daniel Sachs and Anna (Annie) Gela of Dashwood, Huron Co, Ontario. Barbara passed away in Arbourfield, Saskatchewan on November 9, 1945 while visiting with her daughter Flossie. She is buried along side John in Clearwater, Manitoba.

    In 1889, along with their two children, Wellington and Flossie, John Sandercock> & his wife Barbara moved west into the Clearwater area of Manitoba where John took up farming. After growing up in the Clearwater area Wellington returned to Ontario and worked as a clerk. There he met and married Fredericka Gossman(1888-1954) in London & Dashwood, Ontario in 1907. Wellington originally had a store, but like a lot of others at the time, the depression did him in. He then went to work for the McCormick's Biscuit Factory and remained there until his retirement. Fredericka passed away in London in 1954. Wellington passed away in London in 1957. Both are buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Gardens in London. Wellington changed the family name to Sandercott, however there is no official record. The had seven children: Wreford Sandercott(1908-1970), Kenneth Sandercott(1910-1992), Orville Sandercott(1916-1989), Harold Sandercott(1918-2008), Donald Sandercott(1925-2003), Robert Sandercott(1927- ) & Shirley Sandercott(1929-2010).
  • 2 - Orville Frederick Sandercott(1916-1989) - Orville was born in London, Ontario on March 8, 1916. He married Jane Couperthwaite Lennox(1915-1945) in London on April 9, 1938. Jane passed away at age 30 in London, Ontario from Rheumatic Heart Disease (St Vitus Dance), a condition inherited from earlier Gray & Paton ancestors who had worked in the Ayrshire, Scotland coal mines. They had one child. Orville later married Yvonne Randall(1922-2002) in 1946. They had three children. Orville died in Burns Lake BC in 1989. Yvonne passed away in Prince George BC in 2002.

As a result of Y-DNA testing on myself it is now believed Wellington may be a descendant of a Robinson/Robertson family line from Scotland. There appears to be some significance to the fact that Wellington's second name was recorded as Robinson. DNA results have proven my ancestry as Scottish and and I share a terminal Subclade of BY97541 with two other men who carry the Robertson surname from Scotland.

Not to panic - I'm still part of Sandercock Family Tree thanks to my maternal Great Grandmother, Barbara Sacks, and her marriage to John Sandercock.

Research is ongoing to discover Wellington's elusive biological father.


Depiction of ancient Hunter-Gatherers migrating across eastern Europe.


Way Back in Time
First DNA Test
Research Mythology
Haplogroup I-M223
Oops, A Problem
Haplogroup R-M269+
SNPs, Positive or Negative
Starting Over Again
Migration Years Ago
Following the Footprints
Haplogroup R-P312+
Haplogroup R-L2+
Big Y-700 Results
Haplogroup A6454
Recent Common Ancestor
Family Finder Test
Arrival in Britain


Searching for my Ancient Ancestors without the aid of written records requires a whole new approach. Who were they? Where and when did they come from? The genealogical community would have us believe humans originated in Africa. That requires a scientific approach using DNA. But where to start my learning curve?


Africa, the Cradle of Civilization; it has long been known that we as humans evolved from ape-like beings in the trees of Africa. My Sandercock line of ancestors goes way back into those ancient times, back to a single African man that has been labeled, 'Adam' by genealogists. He is believed to have lived in the region of the Rift Valley in northeast Africa, within Ethiopia's Afar Triangle.

As recent as 2007 a discovery in Kenya, Africa, of human-like bones dating an estimated 6.1 to 5.7 million years old have been found. The individual has been named "Millennium Man" or "Orrorin", from a native language meaning "Original Man". This discovery pre-dated the infamous skeleton of Lucy that lived some 3.2 million years ago. Orrorin was capable of walking upright across the plains while still being able to use the trees for safety. Orrorin was discovered in the Tugen Hills in Kenya, while Lucy was discovered at Hadar, in the Awash Valley of the Afar Triangle in Ethiopia, Africa.

Homo Sapien Idaltu Skull

Three fossilized skulls consisting of two adults and a six year-old child, all dated between 160,000 and 154,000 years old, were pulled out of sediments at Herto Bouri near the middle Awash Valley site of Ethiopia's Afar Triangle in 1997 by Tim White, but were not unveiled until 2003. Scientists believe the find to be among the most important discoveries ever made in the search for the origin of humans. Homo Sapien Idaltu (Afar:Idaltu; "Elder" or "First born"), also called Herto Man, is the name given to the human fossils found in 1997 in Herto Bouri, Ethiopia. They are described as the oldest known fossils of modern humans, or Homo Sapiens. Stone tools and the fossil skull of a butchered hippo were the first artifacts to be picked up. Buffalo fossils were later recovered indicating the ancient humans had a meat-rich diet. Homo Sapiens Idaltu is an extinct subspecies of Homo Sapiens. Herto Man is proof that modern humans lived in Pleistocene Africa at least 160,000 years ago.

Some 78,000 years ago, a community in East Africa laid to rest a child of about 3 years old. Its caretakers dug a shallow pit, curled its small body, and may have rested its head on a pillow before committing the body to the earth. A new study describing the excavation of the child's grave reveals the oldest known evidence of modern humans in Africa burying their dead.

The new grave was found in 2013 under the rocky overhang of a cave called Panga ya Saidi along the coastline of southeastern Kenya. Archaeologists and local workers noticed an unusual, pit-shaped undulation of sediment within the walls of one of their trenches. When they inspected it, a small bone fell out - and promptly turned to dust. Realizing they had found an extraordinarily delicate fossil, the archaeologists spent the next four years painstakingly digging and casting the fragile bones in plaster. Two teeth later analyzed at the National Museums of Kenya unambiguously identified the body as a human child. Its position suggested caretakers had deliberately curled it into a fetal position before placing it into a shallow pit and the way the skull twisted and bent inside its grave suggests it may have been propped up on some sort of pillow. An archaeologist named the child Mtoto, after the same word in Swahili.

Julien Riel-Salvatore, an anthropologist at the University of Montreal, agrees that the level of care that went into Mtoto's burial suggests a child's death was especially poignant. "The idea that people would go out of their way to preserve the child's body, which would slow its decay and protect it from scavengers, reflects the fact that people cared deeply about their children," he says.

This was within the Pleistocene or Stone Age as it was known. The period dates back millions of years and ended roughly 11,000 years ago. The Pleistocene Epoch was a time during which extensive ice sheets and other glaciers formed repeatedly over the land and referred to as the Great Ice Age.

Recent discovery of 120,000 year old human footprints have been found along the shore of an ancient lake in what is now Nefud Desert in Saudia Arabia. It has been long believed that Homo Sapiens explored the Arabian Peninsula on their way out of Africa, back when the climate was wetter and the current deserts were green grasslands. Still, some continue to believe these modern humans did not leave Africa until between 60,000 and 90,000 years ago. Most likely, a change in climate pushed them out. Experts suggest that too little rain in that part of Africa led to starvation. Humans were driven to near extinction. They had to find better climate, greener lands and the animals that formed a large part of their food source, so being hunter-gatherers, they migrated out of Africa into greener pastures.

A few million years ago descendants of Adam had begun migrating out of Africa; Homo Erectus, Homo Neandertalensis and Homo Denisova. Recent DNA testing of both the Neandertals and Denisovans have been sequenced to reveal how closely related we are. They were followed later by migrations of Homo Sapiens which included my ancient ancestors.

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In the fall of 2019 I spit in a special vial and mailed the sample off to AncestryDNA for an analysis of my DNA. Late February 2020 I received a report with maps showing my possible ethnicity and the names of 2nd to 5 & 6th cousins from around the world, four hundred and sixty of them, none of whom were on my Christmas Card list. The report, while interesting, was not what I was expecting.

The results showed the following Ethnicity Estimates: Bearing in mind Ethnicity is from both Maternal & Paternal lines. My mother's line is all 100% Scottish, while my father's ancestry is possibly Scottish on his paternal line and German on his maternal line thanks to his mother & maternal grandmother.

Results from Ancestry were:
  • England, Wales & Northwest Europe - 52%
  • Ireland & Scotland - 28%
  • Germanic Europe - 20%
Then on 15 September 2020 I received an Ethnicity Update from Ancestry. There was a major shift in ethnicity from 28% in Ireland & Scotland to 69% in Scotland! Results of their predictions follow below:

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My research makes use of three different types of DNA Testing:
  • Y-DNA follows the male line, it's from your Y Chromosome that you received from your father who received it from his father who received it from his father and so on. Because Y-DNA is absolutely unique it can be traced back in time to the beginning of man. Only men have the Y Chromosome.

  • Mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mother to daughter, to her daughter, to her daughter, down the maternal line. Men may be tested for mtDNA as they receive it from their mothers, however they can't pass it on to their sons. mtDNA is good for tracing the maternal line back hundreds of years.

  • Autosomal DNA is inherited from both parents, who got it from their parents, and so on. The test results provide a wealth of information on all chromosomes. It was Autosomal DNA from Ancestry DNA that I used for most of my early research.

AncestryDNA tests for Autosomal DNA which is inherited from both parents, and is used for ethnicity reports and finding all those new cousin matches. But what I needed was access to two specific types of DNA; Y-DNA (Y Chromosome 24) for my male line and mtDNA (Chromosome 26) to trace my mother's line. Y-DNA is inherited from father to son(s) only. Mitochondrial mtDNA is passed only from mother to daughter(s). AncestryDNA failed to mention that both DNA results I wanted were accessible in my Raw DNA Data through my online account, with a little effort on my part.

My first task was to download my Raw DNA Data from Ancestry's website. The material was received as .txt files in a zipped format. I was able to open the file using my Notepad Program. The genetic data provided was in five TAB delimited columns. Column one provided the rsID Numbers, column two and three contained the chromosome and base pair position numbers, columns four and five contained the two Alleles observed at that position.

An allele is one of two or more versions of a gene. An individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are the same, an individual is homozygous for that gene. If the alleles are different, an individual is heterozygous. When you're heterozygous for a specific gene, it means you have two different versions of that gene. The dominant form can completely mask the recessive one, or they can blend together. In some cases, both versions appear at the same time. There appears to be six Heterozygous Alleles within Chromosome 24 of my Y-DNA Raw Data, fortunately, none are in my 'R' Haplogroup SNPs.

I quickly realized the downloaded file was far too large to open in my Excel Program so I proceeded with Plan 'B'. What I needed to do was break the large file into sections and save each one separately. Included in the Raw DNA Data were:
  • Total lines from all chromosomes: 677843
  • X Chromosome = 25250 lines labeled as chromosome 23
  • Y Chromosome = 1668 lines labeled as chromosome 24
  • Plus 36 SNPs from either chromosome 25 or maybe 24? (No SNPs in mine)
  • mtDNA SNPs = 263 lines labeled as chromosome 26
  • Chromosomes 1 through 23 = 675876 to be considered later.
By opening the new files in Notepad I could easily use the Find Command to search the files by rsID numbers. Armed with that ability I cropped out all 1668 Y-DNA rsID lines and pasted them to their own file in my Excel program. I did the same for the 263 lines of mtDNA rsID Numbers .

To make the files more useful I entered the rsID number from each of the 1668 lines of the Y-DNA file through the Generic Homeland Database Website to acquire a Marker Name (SNP) for each rsID along with their Alleles. I did the same for the 263 lines of the mtDNA file and after a week of almost going cross-eyed I had two new Excel database tools for my research project; one for Y-DNA and one for mtDNA.

STR (Stands for Short Tandem Repeats)

Genetic genealogy works by studying the sequences of repeating nucleotide (the base components of DNA) patterns on the Y chromosome known as short tandem repeats (STRs). Each STR is considered a separate marker for potential genetic matching because the number of times it is repeated will be the same for related males. For example, a person may have one STR sequence that repeats 12 times, another 11 times, a third 17 times and so on. If another male has a Y chromosome with a high percentage of the same STRs, it is considered likely that they share a common ancestor.

SNP (Pronounced as 'snip' and stands for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms)

A new SNP is formed when a man fathers a son with a mutation that changes the son's genetic makeup. That son will eventually have sons of his own who will be included in the new SNP. They in turn will have sons and the descendant generations, and there could be many, will continue to grow until a son is born with a mutation and a new SNP is formed.

A Y-DNA Haplogroup is a group of people who share the same SNPs, meaning they are descended from the same common ancestor on their paternal line. SNPs can be used to construct branches on the family tree. By following SNPs within a Haplogroup one may trace one's paternal ancestral migrations from thousands of years back.


The major Haplogroups are represented by a letter from A to T. As further mutations occur down the line, the Haplogroup gets divided into sub-groups, called Sub-clades. The sub-clades are identified by adding further letters and numbers to the main letter. Every sub-clade is defined by a specific SNP that is unique to that Haplogroup. To find out exactly which sub-clade of a particular Haplogroup one belongs to requires advanced Y-DNA testing for more Markers.


AncestryDNA does not predict a Haplogroup. So as a starting point I looked to a male Sandercock cousin in Cornwall, England. This cousin was identified in my paper Family Tree. He had tested through LivingDNA and they predicted his Haplogroup as Haplogroup I or I-M223. They showed his SNP line as; F-M89 > M170 > M438 > L460 > M436 > M223 > CTS616 > CTS10057 > Z161 > L801 > Z170 > CTS6433.

According to the paper version of my believed to be Sandercock ancestors, a Jacob Sandercock(a1625-before1699) & Dorothy Briand(a1642-a1711) had several children in the Tremaine area of Cornwall, England. Dorothy's will of 1701 show two of them were Benjamine Sandercock(a1680- ), my cousin's ancestor, and Robert Sandercock(1682-1734) who I believed to be my ancestor. If my paper research on the Sandercock tree was correct and we both shared Jacob Sandercock as a common ancestor, then we should both share the same Y-DNA thanks to Jacob. I decided to start with the same Haplogroup I and specifically SNP I-M223.

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To start with I checked to see if all the SNPs from my cousin's test were in my Raw DNA Data; three were missing. So I then referred to the online Y-FullTree and recorded the following SNPs starting with M170 as the oldest:

M170 > M438 > L460 > M436 > M223 > P222 > CTS616 > CTS10057 > Z161 > L801 > CTS6433 > Z78 > L1198 > Z190 > Z79.

When I checked them against my database I found most of them. Z190 however, and a few other SNPs were not in my database!

Charging ahead I used a scene from the Jurassic Park movie and inserted a bit of frog DNA to complete the SNP String. Then I fed the string into the online Morley's Marker Predictor to confirm the Haplogroup and those Subclades listed above. I then entered my new Marker Names into the SNP Tracker Website to produce an impressive map of the migration those ancestors appear to have traveled.

However, Z79 was formed about 2600 years ago which means the ancestors were still on the European mainland at that time and there are no more SNPs in my Raw Data to go any further.

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I couldn't shake the feeling something wasn't quite right so I made the decision to test my DNA using a different company, one that predicts the Haplogroup. In that way I could verify that I have been using the correct Haplogroup and SNPs. I chose the Y-37 test by Family Tree DNA out of Texas. On 26 September 2020 I received my results with their predictions. Instead of the confirmation I was expecting they predicted my Haplogroup as R1b-M269!! If their prediction was correct then all the work I had done with the I-M223 Haplogroup was wrong! It raised the interesting question, was the cousin whose Y-DNA data I used really my cousin?

** Update: Thanks to the recent revelation that my grandfather Wellington Robinson Sandercock was apparently adopted makes the earlier 'cousin' unrelated blood wise. There's no way we would share the same DNA. So, back to the drawing board.

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Using the online SNP Tracker Website I produced the chart below that illustrates just how far back my Ancient Ancestors go. My research project suddenly took on a whole new scope, as did my learning curve.

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Part of that learning curve was finding out if a SNP is Positive or Negative. When a mutation takes place between a father and one son it results in a new SNP. Each position on the chromosome contains an Allele #1 and an Allele #2. On my database I created four columns labeled: A1, A2, A4 & D5.
  • A1 = Allele #1 - From my Raw DNA Data
  • A2 = Allele #2 - From my Raw DNA Data
  • A4 = DNA Allele before mutation
  • D5 = DNA Allele after mutation
If D5 is the same as A1 that means the SNP is Positive and the Mutation was expressed. If not the SNP is Negative.

Information for A4 & D5 taken from the Genetic Homeland Database. On the chart below I've identified Positive SNPs with a '+' sign.

The AGE of a SNP or YBP(Years before present) used in my database and throughout this document are taken from the Generic Homeland Database Website or the SNP Tracker Website and are formulae calculated and little better than good guesses.

**Interestingly: now that I've learned how to test a SNP as Positive or Negative, I ran the Haplogroup "I" SNPs from my earlier research through the same procedure and those SNPs all came back Negative so that sort of confirms I do not belong to Haplogroup "I".

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So, I'm starting again using Haplogroup R1b and specifically R-M269. This time I went back to the beginning and started with Markers BT-M42 > CT-M168 > CF-P143 > F-M89 > GHIJK-F1329 > HIJK-PF3494 > IJK-L15 which were all in my database.

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The following is my R1b Y-DNA SNP chain and all are in my database except for those in red. The R-L389+ marker in red is new and presumed positive by FTDNA. Later confirmed positive.
IJK-L15+ > K-M9+ > K-M526+ > K-YSC0000186- > PF-P5850- > P-P295+ > P-M45+ > P-P284+ > P-P226+ > R-M207+ > R-M173+ > R-M343+ > R-L754+ > R-L389+ > R-P297+ > R-M269+ > R-L23+ > R-L51+ > R-P310+ > R-L151+ > R-P312+
Firstly, throughout this document I often use current country names to help identify the location of the early migration routes. Current country borders did not exist thousands of years ago. The landscape was much different back then.

While there are earlier SNP Markers found in my DNA such as PR2921 believed to date to about 240,000 years ago, and L1090 that dates to about 200,000 years ago, there were many layers of early Homo Sapien descendants after them that left Africa. I started following the migration of my ancient ancestors at marker BT-M42+ (see migration map below) that formed at about 130,700 years ago, perhaps in the area of Kenya, Africa. The discovery of a single finger bone from a Homo Sapien dating to 88,000 years ago proves modern humans migrated through the area. Those humans would have been part of the SNP CT-M168+ which formed approximately 88,000 years ago. As it turns out, CT-M168+ is the Common Progenitor of all human male lines established outside of Africa.

After crossing what is today southern Saudi Arabia a new marker CF-P143+ formed near the western edge of the Persian Gulf. Some of the migrants, possibly including brothers or uncles of my ancestor, crossed over the Persian Gulf at the Straights of Hormuz and up onto the Iranian Plateau in southern Iran where marker C-M216 formed about 60,000 years ago. My ancestor did not cross but traveled towards the north west end of the Persian Gulf where marker F-M89+ formed about 66,000 years ago. Roughly a thousand years later GHIJK-F1329+ formed, followed by HIJK-PF3494+ about 57,000 years ago. Then about 48,000 years ago an important Haplogroup labeled IJK-L15+ formed.

In the same general area of Iraq or western Iran, descendants of IJK-L15+ split into two new branches: IJ-P124 about 47,000 years ago that went on to eventually start Haplogroup "I" with the formation of I-L758. The other branch was K-M9+ that formed about 47,000 years ago and would lead to the creation of Haplogroup "R".

  All during this time period the Neanderthals were inhabiting central Europe and surrounding areas. My ancestors undoubtedly came into contact with them for a period of at least 10,000 years as both competed for food and resources during their migrations west of Lake Baikal in Western Mongolia. According to fossil records the Neanderthals disappeared between 30,000 to 20,000 years ago.  

Another group my ancient ancestors may have rubbed elbows with was Cro-Magnon Man. This early Homo Sapien group from the Upper Paleolithic Period from about 40,000 to 10,000 years ago ranged through central Europe down into Spain. They were a more settled people unlike my nomadic ancestors. It's not known for sure what became of the Cro-Magnon but a lot of them were gradually absorbed into later migrant groups such as my ancestors.

Life in the Paleolithic (Stone Age) Period

Marker K-M9+ is the line I will follow as they migrated east into Iran where the next marker K-M526+ followed closely. The next two markers along that line, which are not in my database, at least not by those names; K-YSC0000186- around 45,000 years ago which branches to Haplogroups M, P & S, an example is S-P307 in Indonesia. ** Both later confirmed positive. The next is P-PF5850- at about 45,000 years ago. Then P-P295+ was formed about 44,000 years ago in the area of Afghanistan, still heading northeast. After some considerable distance marker P-P337+ formed around 42,000 years ago in an area west of Lake Baikal in Western Mongolia.

There's considerable evidence migrant groups continued on north, east and south. Marker P-P284+ formed in the region about 41,000 years ago and some of those descendants reversed direction and headed back towards the west where P-P226+ formed about 35,000 years ago. Following the formation of P-P226+ a group of those people moved further north, for what ever reason, to where a new Haplogroup known as Q-M242- formed around the Altai Mountains.

Turns out Q-M242- people appear in Central Asia and Northern Siberia as well as the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia. Interestingly, they also appear as the predominant Y-DNA Haplogroup among Native North Americans having obviously crossed via the Beringia Land Bridge during the Last Glacial Maximum.

Meanwhile my ancestors continued their trek west. Between 25,000 and 19,000 years ago massive ice sheets (Last Glacial Maximum) covered the northern portions of Europe & Asia. It appears obvious that my ancestors skirted the ice fields. These people were still Hunter-Gatherers following the large herds of animals that formed their food source.


The Hunter Gatherers used stone, wood, bone and antlers for their weapons and implements. People wore clothing made from animal skins, which they sewed together using intricately-crafted bone needles. Their weaponry included spears, bows and arrows, and harpoons. They lived in small mobile groups, normally of about ten or twelve adults plus children. They were regularly on the move, searching for nuts, berries and other plants and following the wild animals which the men hunted for meat. The groups made use of caves for shelter or areas of high ground giving them a good all-round vision of the countryside. While the men hunted, the women foraged for wild plants and other edibles. Depending on regions they passed through, wildlife consisted of giant elk, wooly mammoths, wooly rhinoceros, lena horse, bison, ibex and wild boar. They sometimes focused on trapping small game or on fishing. The survival of their family groups depended on their skills.

A collection of stone/bone tools & jewelry.

Climate records show a considerable warming trend evolved and that would have allowed migrations to move in a more northerly direction as well as back west towards Europe. Around 31,000 years ago marker R-M207+ formed along the southern border of Russia, marking the beginning of Haplogroup R. Then half way between there and the Caspian Sea the marker group R-M173+ was formed about 23,000 years ago. Here R-M173 split apart and some migrants appear to have headed west into northern Europe and Scandinavia and formed R1a M420. Then about 20,000 years ago a new marker appeared along the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea. It is known as R1b M343+ as a result of the split.

There is a current debate taking place as a result of DNA from some of the 5000 year old Tarim Basin Mummies from a cemetery in southern Xinjiang province in China testing R1b. This new discovery is casting doubt as to where and when Haplogroup R1b originated. More to come on that as it develops.

Anyway, my R1b M343+ appears to have followed the Caspian shores, crossing into Iran, and around to the southwest side where R1b L754+ evolved about 20,000 years ago. A group leading to R1b V88 which formed about 12,000 years ago broke off and headed west into northwest Africa which is Egypt today, (see insert in map above). The balance of R1b L754+ moved northwest along the shoreline of the Caspian towards Russia. That's where R1b L389+ formed about 17,000 years ago. Further up the western shores of the Caspian Sea a new marker formed; R1b P297+ about 16,000 years ago leadiing to the Steppes(East Europe/Russia and the Ukraine). Then my ancestors left the shore line and headed northwest across the Volga River and deep into Russia north of the Black Sea to where SNP R1b M269+ was formed around 13,000 years ago. R1b M269+ was predicted as my Haplogroup by my Family Tree DNA Y-37 test.

This was the period between the Upper Paleolithic on its way out and the Mesolithic Periods resulting in changes in cultures and technologies. They had already domesticated one species of animal, the dog (probably around 15,000 years ago), which they used for hunting. With the coming of the Mesolithic Period came an end to the Ice Ages and a beginning of a more temperate climate. More sedentary colonies and race differences began to appear.

Life in the Mesolithic Period

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Starting with R1b M269+ from 13,000 years ago (see map below), descendants would eventually dominate west and central Europe. The next marker is R1b L23+ that formed about 6,400 years ago in southern Russia.

** Interesting: Autosomal Test results by 23andMe have been received from a Cornish Sandercock 4th cousin from the Sandercock Tree (prior to the Y-DNA break thanks to my grandfather Wellington). Interestingly, they predicted his Terminl SNP as R1b-Z2109 having branched from R1b-L23.

Anyway, then my ancestors swung south west from R1b-L23 to where marker R1b L51+ formed about 6,100 years ago at the western end of the Black Sea. Again, multiple waves of modern humans had passed through that area several thousand years earlier. In the Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria evidence has been found of modern humans dating back 47,000 to 43,000 years ago.

Migration by my ancestors slowed considerably with the dawning of the Neolithic Period and its technological changes in areas such as farming and fishing. During their migration west my ancestors lived through a period of the Yamnaya Culture that existed from 6,400 to 4,800 years ago. Its name derives from their burial traditions.

Movement west crawled along slowly and about 5,400 years ago marker R1b P310+ formed north of the Alps in the region of today's Austria/Czechoslovakia. Next along the Y-DNA trail came marker R1b L151+ (also known as R1b L11) around 5,000 years ago in central Europe. There were two Subclades formed: R1b U106- as the north branch, and R1b P312+ as the south-western branch.

Note: R1b U106- was a major thorough fare into the British Isles. However, it tests negative in my database, whereas R1b P312+ was confirmed positive by Family Tree DNA following a SNP Test and confirmed to be my Terminal SNP to that point.

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So, after the positive 4,800 year old R1b P312+, the next SNP in my line appears to be R1b ZZ11 which formed about 4,600 years ago along the coast of southern France. R1b ZZ11 does not appear in my DNA Raw Data so it must new and presumed positive. After turning north the marker R1b U152+, in my raw data, formed about 4,500 years ago. Next in line is R1b L2+ that formed about 4,400 years ago in the area of eastern France or Switzerland. Both test positive. This was the last SNP I was able to glean from the Raw Data I downloaded from AncestryDNA.

This marks a period of cultural contact in Atlantic and Western Europe following a prolonged period of relative isolation during the Neolithic. Known as the Bell Beaker culture, people took advantage of transport by sea and rivers, creating a cultural spread extending from Ireland to the Carpathian Basin and south along the Atlantic coast. They left no written records, all theories regarding the languages they spoke remain conjectural.

** Interesting: I received a copy of Raw Data from a DNA test Lloyd Sandercock did with Ancestry DNA. Lloyd is a 5th cousin from the Sandercock Tree prior to the Y-DNA break thanks to my grandfather Wellington. What I discovered with Lloyd's raw data was that all his positive SNPS are identical to mine right up to R1b-L2. Unfortunately he would have take a Big Y-700 DNA test from FTDNA to see where his ancestors went from there.


R1b L2+ is obviously my next jumping off point, but before that can happen a more in depth test of my DNA was required. That I undertook on the 28 April 2021 by upgrading to FamilyTreeDNA's Big Y700 test. I may yet have to take out a paper route to pay for it.

The map above shows the spread of R1b L2+ in all directions.

The map above shows concentrations of Haplogroup R1b L2+ moving into the British Isles.

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Finally on 29 July 2021 my test results began to appear when my Confirmed Haplogroup was upgraded to R1b BY97541+. The results provided me with new SNPs; #s 29 thru 35 on the chart below.

A careful review of the Matches Section reveals a close relationship to Gary Robertson, Glenn Robertson & Dan Nelson-Brown. The Genetic Distance is close enough to indicate a possible Common Ancestor. Turns out both Gary & Glenn's Terminal Haplogroups are same as mine so the three of us ended up on the same R1b BY97541 branch of the Block Tree. Dan's Terminal Haplogroup is R1b BY66752, one back from ours in the SNP Chain. Another man, James Errol Robertson appears close but he only tested for Y37. It's very likely should he take the Big Y-700 test he would end up on our branch.

Named Variants:

Along with the significant SNPs above there are also 2545 Named Variants that I'm positive for, some appear on the Y-DNA Haplotree, others, while positive, may not be phylogenetically relevant.

Private Variants:

I have five Private Variants;
  • 4253560 - FTB16283+ C G
  • 15796283 - FTB11890 A G
  • 21636008 - FTA85462 G A
  • 8574277 - MF92336 G A
  • 9283967 - FTA80117 C T
These are the locations on the Y-Chromosome where my Private Variants (mutations) have been identified followed by their SNP Names and the Alleles.

Variant Matches: (11)

All told there are 11 Matching Variants but only two on my BY97541 branch besides myself:

- Glen E Robertson BY97541. He's on my branch. His shared variants = 645836
- Gary Robertson BY97541. He's on my branch. His shared variants = 931257

Apparently, by comparing the Non-matching Variants for each of the BY97541 men above against my Private Variants, if any are missing then there's a good chance that man and myself will form a new branch on the Big Y Block Tree.

#4253560 (FTB16283+) is missing from Glenn Robertson. I understand that means both Glenn & I are positive for that new SNP.

** Update: For awhile nothing seemed to changed, so I contacted FTDNA with a query. After investigating they found Glenn was not positive for the FTB16283 SNP. They couldn't explain the discrepency so we both remain at R1b-BY97541.


I managed to get copies of Gary & Glenn Robertson's STRs from one of the Surname Project pages. In comparing them with mine, Gary's STRs are identical to mine from Y12 thru Y111. With Glenn's there were only four differences. It's another indicator that we may be related. I have requested James Errol (Jim) Robertson's STR results. Apparently Jim is a 4th cousin to Gary so Jim would probably end up in the BY97541 branch with us. But that means Jim would have to take the Big Y-700 test. Should that happen, and given Gary & Jim's close relation, there's a good chance Glenn & I would create a new Haplogroup on the Big Y Block Tree.


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Following along on the map below, leaving R1b L2+ behind, my ancestors headed in a northerly direction to where marker R1b A6454+ formed approximately 3,212 years ago. Its formation date is presently unknown for sure.

After that comes R1b BY771+ That formed about 2,854 years ago, possibly on the European Coast, its actual location is unsure at this time. Its formation date is presently unknown for sure.

Next marker in the migration, and believed to be on English soil, is R1b BY1797+ which is believed to have formed about 2,496 years ago. Its formation date is presently unknown for sure.

The next marker recorded is R1b BY806+ which is believed to have formed about 2,138 years ago. Its formation date is presently unknown for sure.

Still another marker in the line is R1b BY31090+ which is believed to have formed about 1,780 years ago. Its formation date is presently unknown for sure.

R1b BY66752+ is the next marker that appears to have formed about mid way up England. It is believed to have formed about 1,422 years ago. Its formation date is presently unknown for sure.

According to test results the end of the line or Terminal SNP is R1b BY97541+ and believed to have formed in Scotland about 500 years ago. Its formation date & actual location are presently unknown for sure.

Well the FTDNA genealogists have had time to manually review my test results from the laboratory and nothing has changed so I'm assuming my results are final. Time to look seriously at my Terminal Haplogroup BY97541. I need to determine a formation date and location. It's important to bear in mind the SNP Tracker software determines location based on the average of the Country Locations as reported by individual testers in FTDNA's Database. So the location of SNPs have a tendency to move around.

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Being in the same branch of the World Tree a Common Ancestor for Glenn Robertson, Gary Robertson & myself would be BY97541.

The top of Glenn's paper tree is John Robertson(1784-1847) born in Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Another tree has John's father as Halbert Robertson(1760-1837) born about 1760 in Crossmichael, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Both trees suggest the next back would have been a Craig about 1740, perhaps a member of the Craig Clan?

The Craig surname does appear in our Block Tree (a couple pages back). The Closest Common Ancestor between us and the Craig surname would be Haplogroup BY31090 so I guess it would be possible. The Craig subclade went from BY31090 to BY820. Our line went from BY31090 to BY66725 and finally to our BY97541.

The top of Gary's paper family tree is John Robertson(1797-1856) from Greene Co. Tennessee, USA. He is believed to have been born in the US with parents from Scotland.

The top of my paper family tree is . . .

WHOA ..... BIG PROBLEM - Thanks to the recent discovery that my grandfather Wellington Robinson Sandercock was apparently adopted brings my research to a roaring halt!!

So, it appears my paternal grandfather Wellington Robinson Sandercott has thrown a monkey-wrench into the works. Registered birth records indicate Wellington was born 'Illegitimate' to my maternal great grandmother Barbara Sachs on 3 August 1883. She was 23 years old at the time. There is no indication of the father's name on the document that was registered on 18 August 1883. She would have conceived in late November or early December of 1882. John Sandercock, who eventually married Barbara, didn't immigrate to Canada until 1883, arriving in Quebec aboard the 'Circassian' on 7 May 1883. So he can't be the father of Wellington. John met and married Barbara on 14 March 1888 in Dashwood, Huron County, Ontario. At the time of the marriage Barbara was a spinster with a five year old son, she was also about two months pregnant with her daughter Flossie who was born in Exeter, Ontario on 27 October 1888. Wellington is believed to have been Flossie's father.

Okay, with Y-DNA being passed from father to son down the line it means Wellington and his biological father would carry the same R1b Haplogroup and Terminal SNP of BY97541 as me. To date the only BY97541 in FTDNA's database is Glenn Robertson, Gary Robertson and myself. I have already fleshed out the two Robertson Family Trees and found no obvious link to Ontario.

The fact that Barbara gave her son the middle name of, Robinson, leads me to believe it was her way of passing along Wellington's biological father's name. It is quite common to see Robinson exchanged with Robertson, which leads me to believe I'm on the right track. There are several Robinsons in FTDNA's Matches Lists that carry the Wellington name as either a first or second name. I could wait for somebody out there to take FTDNA's Big Y-700 test and turn out to be BY97541. But that could take forever or never in my lifetime. I can't see myself asking strangers to spend in excess of $400 to test their DNA for me, so . . .

Busy researching ... I'm working fast as I can.


I sent away for FTDNA's Autosomal Family Finder Test. It is very much like AncestryDNA's test that I started out with a couple years back. Big difference is Ancestry used their own database to determine ethnicity and cousins. Far more relatives have tested with AncestryDNA than with FTDNA so results should be sparse but hopefully interesting and helpful.

Around the 15th September 2021 the results of my Family Finder came back. As expected there were tons of new potential cousins in which I have little interest at this time. Being as how 50% of my DNA comes from my mother who is 100% Scottish my ethnicity is skewed towards Scotland. Unlike Ancestry, FTDNA does not include Y-DNA SNPs or mtDNA SNPs with their down loadable data so there is nothing to help in my long ago research. Another problem is that when verifying the relationship of the cousin matches I find they are related back to either my Gossman side or the Lennox side. I have found no relationships going back to the English Sandercock side.

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My last Haplogroup in Europe appears to have been R-A6454 or R-BY771. The SNP Tracker Website speculates my BY97541 Haplogroup formed in Scotland about 500 years ago (1520 AD) give or take a hundred or so years. There are 4 SNPs between the formation of BY97541 and BY771: BY66752, BY31090, BY806 & BY1797. But which one was the first to reach English soil. Hmm? Must pour myself a big shot of Scotch Wiskey, maybe that will help.

Norman Invasions

The Normans invaded England 945 years ago (1,066 AD). William the Conqueror was victorious at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex. Hundreds of ships were utilized and an army of thousands conscripted from Brittany north to Flanders in Belgium. This was part of my ancestral homelands. According to Wikipedia, 'an estimated 8000 Normans and other continentals settled in England as a result of the conquest'. William's soldiers were rewarded with land, titles, and power, and French-Norman rule and culture were imposed across England and Wales. If my ancestor was part of one of the invading armies, there's a good chance he would have been free to wander off and explore the new countryside when the army was disbanded. He and his descendants would have had a couple hundred years to travel the British Isles before settling in southern England and specifically Devon & Cornwall.

Norman Conquest 954 years ago (1066 AD)

Anglo Saxons

Other mass movements of people around that time line were the Saxons. They came from Jutland, Northern Germany, Netherlands and Friesland, which was part of the homelands of my ancient ancestors. The Saxons began to flood into England around 1,610 years ago (410 AD) following the withdrawal of the Romans.

Southern Great Briton 600 AD (1,420 years ago)

Raft or Boat

An expanse of low-lying tundra allowed migration from Europe to Britain across what is known as Doggerland. Early migrants wandered across the still-dry sea bed up until approximately 8,500 years ago when sea levels rose rapidly forming the English Channel. Many years later the first farmers reached Britain about 6,000 years ago on boats or rafts that had to accommodate cattle and sheep as well as people. Later immigrants crossed with plows and horses. Discoveries of Bronze Age shipwrecks by archaeologists reveal that traders were voyaging routinely across the wider parts of the English Channel as far as Ireland more than 3,000 years ago. (Britannica)

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